Impacto de la contaminación atmosférica sobre la mortalidad diaria a corto plazo en España.

Julio Díaz Jiménez, Cristina Linares Gil

Resumen


En España no existen trabajos actualizados sobre el impacto de la contaminación atmosférica sobre la mortalidad diaria a nivel provincial. Recientemente se han publicado tres artículos en relación al impacto que los niveles de PM10, NO2 y O3 tienen sobre la mortalidad diaria en las 52 capitales de provincia españolas, pero no existe una síntesis que englobe el efecto conjunto debido a estos contaminantes.

El objetivo de este trabajo es, por tanto, explicar la metodología conjunta seguida en estos estudios, cuáles son los principales resultados obtenidos, así como las limitaciones y las implicaciones de este tipo de publicaciones en salud pública. El principal resultado es que la mortalidad por todas las causas atribuibles a la contaminación atmosférica química en España se relaciona con 9500 muertes/año. Este valor representa la quinta parte de la mortalidad debida al tabaco y 8 veces más que causada por los accidentes de tráfico. Es decir, el 3% de la mortalidad que se produce en España estaría relacionada con los efectos a corto plazo de la contaminación atmosférica química, por lo que la articulación de planes de actuación estructurales para bajar los niveles de contaminación química en las grandes ciudades se hacen imprescindibles. En caso especial del ozono con la determinación de un valor umbral a nivel provincial podría servir para la articulación de planes de prevención similares a los ya existentes para el caso del calor.


Palabras clave


contaminación atmosférica; mortalidad atribuible en España; PM10; NO2; O3

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